2018-19 Taxpayers' Budget Guide

Florida TaxWatch is pleased to present taxpayers with a guide to the FY2018-19 state budget, which went into effect July 1, 2018.

The 2018 Florida Legislature passed a $88.727 billion General Appropriations Act, already the largest in the state’s history. But this is not all the money appropriated this year. Every session, the Legislature makes appropriations in other bills, including funding for agencies to implement new programs authorized by the legislation.

This session, the Legislature appropriated more than $600 million in other bills. This funding includes a $400 million school safety bill in the wake of the tragic Marjory Stoneman Douglas school shooting and $123.5 million to increase higher education financial aid, including an expansion of Bright Futures Scholarships.

Legislators also got plenty of projects for their districts. This year’s budget contains 517 member projects worth more than $560 million, a surprising amount given that this was pronounced “a tight budget year.” In the two sessions since the new rules for member projects were adopted (with the goals of increased accountability and limiting projects), there has been a total of more than 1,200 member projects worth $1.2 billion funded in the state budget.

After deducting the Governor’s vetoes, the net result is FY2018-19 appropriations totaling $89.313 billion, a $4.360 billion (5.1 percent) increase over the current year.

In addition to many facts and figures explaining this year’s budget, past data are also provided to put it in historical context. The data have also been adjusted to reflect the Governor’s vetoes and appropriations from other bills.

We hope this annual budget guide gives you the information you need to better understand where and how your hard-earned tax dollars are being spent.

Education Budget Highlights

   in $ billion  
Program 2018-19 2017-18 Change
Early Learning $1.089 $1.061 2.64%
Public Schools $15.098 $14.464 4.38%
State Colleges $1.228 $1.216 1.00%
State Universities $5.187 $4.943 4.94%
Other $3.194 $3.233 -1.21%
Total $25.796 $23.925 3.49%
 Dollar figures above rounded to nearest million. Percentages reflect non-rounded figures.

Florida Education Finance Program will provide $21.097 billion to school districts, an increase of 2.35 percent, including $9.170 billion in local funding. 

Per-Student Funding of $7,408 is an increase of $101.50 per student (1.39 percent). There will be almost 27,000 more students in public schools.

School Safety – In response to the tragedy at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, the Legislature passed a bill providing $400 million in safety funding, most going to education for school hardening, safety, mental health, the guardian program, and replacing the building at Douglas High.

Early Learning is funded at nearly $1.1 billion, a 2.64 percent increase. Funding includes $630.9 million for the school readiness program and $398.4 million for the Voluntary Pre-K program.

State Colleges receive $1.228 billion, a $12 million (1.0 percent) decrease. Funding includes $60 million in performance funding. A bill making major changes to the college system and providing $101 million did not pass.

State Universities receive $5.187 billion, a $244 million (4.94 percent) increase, including $123 million in a separate bill to increase funding for Bright Futures and other scholarships. There is also $560 million in performance funding. The Preeminent and Emerging Preeminent Universities and World Class Faculty and Scholar Programs received $20 million each.

Tuition – no tuition increase.

“Schools of Hope” – $140 million is allocated for this controversial program to attract successful charter schools to areas served by persistently low-performing traditional public schools.

The Best and Brightest Teacher and Principal Scholarship Program receives $234 million to reward effective teachers and principals.

Public Education Capital Outlay (PECO) receives $482.2 million, including $109.8 million in General Revenue. Among the allocations are:

$275.9 million for maintenance:

  • Public Schools - $50.0 million
  • Charter Schools - $143.3 million 
  • Colleges - $35.4 million
  • Universities - $47.2 million

and $206.7 million for construction projects, including:

  • Public Schools - $33.4 million
  • Colleges - $31.0 million
  • Universities - $101.4 million

Health & Human Services Budget Highlights

   in $ billion  
Program 2018-19 2017-18 Change
Health Care Admin. $29.205 $28.104 3.92%
Persons with Disabilities $1.333 $1.289 -3.41%
Children & Families $3.262 $3.174 2.77%
Elder Affairs $0.334 $0.314 6.37%
Health $2.969 $2.924 1.54%
Veterans Affairs $0.113 $0.151 -25.17%
Total $37.215 $35.956 3.50%
 Dollar figures above rounded to nearest million. Percentages reflect non-rounded figures.

Medicaid receives $29.6 billion, including $898.9 million for price and caseload increases. Reimbursement rates were increased for Intermediate Care Facilities for the Developmentally Disabled ($11.5 million), Pediatric Extended Care facilities ($5.1 million), Pediatric Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care Units ($3.5 million), Epidural services ($1.3 million), and adult hospital outpatient caps ($58.5 million).

Low Income Pool – This federal/state program to help reimburse providers for charity care is authorized at $1.5 billion, but funding is contingent on $586.8 million in contributions from local governments.

Nursing Homes receive an additional $50 million in state money, which will draw down an additional $78.5 million in federal funds for nursing homes.

Long Term Care receives $15.6 million to fund 276 more slots in the Home Care for the Elderly and Community Care for the Elderly programs and 475 slots in the PACE program in Northeast Florida and Martin, Miami-Dade, Lee, and Collier counties.

Alzheimer’s Disease research and care receives $31.9 million for the Alzheimer’s Disease Initiative, including $0.75 million to reduce the waitlist for respite services by 66 individuals, $5 million for Alzheimer’s research, and $3.6 million for local projects.

Maintenance Adoption Subsidies receive $7.6 million to extend eligibility to age 21.

Opioids – A separate bill has passed (HB 21) that provides $53.7 million for expenditures related to the State Targeted Response to the Opioid Crisis grant; community-based services; making emergency opioid antagonists available to first responders; medication-assisted treatment for individuals in the criminal justice system; and for improvements to the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program.

Personal Needs Allowances receive $17 million to increase the allowance from $105 to $130 per month for residents in nursing homes and institutions under the Agency for Persons with Disabilities and the Department of Children and Families.

 

Criminal Justice Budget Highlights

   in $ billion  
Program 2018-19 2017-18 Change
Corrections $2.552 $2.487 2.61%
Justice Admin. Commission $0.917 $0.903 1.55%
Juvenile Justice $0.589 $0.570 3.33%
Law Enforcement $0.298 $0.295 1.02%
Legal Affairs $0.309 $0.299 3.34%
Comm. on Offender Review $0.011 $0.010 1.93%
Total $4.675 $4.565 2.41%
 Dollar figures above rounded to nearest million. Percentages reflect non-rounded figures.

Corrections funding includes $25.1 million to cover the health services deficit, $52.7 million and 289 FTEs for residential mental health treatment ($10.0 million increase), $21.7 million for Hepatitis C treatment, and $6.2 million for facility maintenance, repair, and ADA compliance. 

Juvenile Justice funding of $93.2 million for the delinquency prevention and diversion program is a $14.7 million increase, and includes a $.05 million increase for the Prodigy program, and $4.5 million in additional PACE Center for Girls funding.  $2 million is provided for a retention bonus for DJJ direct care workers.

Law Enforcement receives $1.1 million in school safety funding, including the Douglas High School Public Safety Commission; $2.2 million to improve the sexual offender and predator registry; and $5.7 million for the final year of Computerized Criminal History database implementation.  $6.8 million in grants were provided for local law enforcement projects and capital outlay.

Justice Administration – After 153.5 positions were eliminated in state attorney and public defender offices last year, 95 FTE’s were added to Justice Administration this year.  In response to an IRS audit, Regional Conflict Counsel part-time employees and contractors were converted to full time positions (65 FTEs and $2.7 million).

Legal Affairs/Attorney General receives $7.4 million for the Information Technology Modernization Project and $1.5 million to match federal grant funds for generators at Certified Domestic Violence Centers. 44 vacant positions were eliminated.

Salary Increases – Sworn state law enforcement officers received a 7% pay hike. Assistant SAs and PDs received an extra $2,000 - $4,000.

Judicial Branch Budget Highlights

   in $ billion  
Program 2018-19 2017-18 Change
State Courts Total $0.545 $0.536 1.7%
 Dollar figures above rounded to nearest million. Percentages reflect non-rounded figures.

Children’s Advocacy Centers received $4.2 million ($0.3 million increase), but the funding was transferred from the Courts to the Department of Legal Affairs.

Drug and Veterans Courts receive $7.5 million in treatment services for drug courts in 10 counties and $1.4 million ($800,000 decrease) for veterans’ courts in 9 counties.

Courthouse Construction - No fixed capital outlay funding was provided for state or local courthouses.

Environment Budget Highlights

   in $ billion  
Program 2018-19 2017-18 Change
Agriculture & Consumer Svcs. $1.818 $1.757 3.47%
Environmental Protection $1.782 $1.475 20.81%
Fish & Wildlife C.C. $0.378 $0.372 1.61%
Total $3.978 $3.604 10.38%
 Dollar figures above rounded to nearest million. Percentages reflect non-rounded figures.

Everglades Restoration receives $207.1 million for the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, the regional water quality plan, and the EAA Reservoir; an additional $31.0 million for Northern Everglades and Estuaries Protection; and $5.0 million for dispersed water storage.

Springs Restoration receives $50 million in recurring revenue.

Local Water Projects – 52 member requested projects worth $30.9 million were funded.  This is less than recent years. In the previous five budgets, the Legislature’s spending on water projects (pre-veto) has ranged from $55.6 million to $88.5 million.  For the first time since 2014, none were vetoed.

Beach Restoration receives $61.2 million, including $20.5 million added to the recurring base, and $11.2 million for hurricane recovery projects. 

Florida Forever receives $100.8 million ($75.8 million transfer from GR; $15 million transfer from LATF) for land acquisition.

The Petroleum Tanks Cleanup Program receives $110 million, a $5 million decrease from last year.

Drinking Water and Wastewater Revolving Loan Programs receive $303.0 million (a $62.7 million increase) for financial assistance to local governments for the construction of drinking and waste water systems. 

State Parks receive $35.1 million for state park facility improvements.

The Herbert Hoover Dike sees a transfer of $50.0 million to the South Florida Water Management District to expedite repairs.

The Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services experiences $12.8 million in cuts to the recurring base budget, including a $1.3 million reduction for Agriculture Promotion.

Citrus Greening & Research receives $8 million for citrus research, $7.1 million for the Citrus Health Response program, and $2.5 million for the citrus crop decline supplemental.

Citrus Canker Eradication Claims are provided $52.1 million for payment in the final judgment for Broward County ($22.1 million) and Palm Beach County ($30.0 million).

Forestry receives $5.6 million for the replacement of critical firefighting equipment.

Local Boating Infrastructure receives $6.4 million for local governments for various boating access and maintenance and repair projects. 

Transportation & Economic Development Budget Highlights

   in $ billion  
Program 2018-19 2017-18 Change
Transportation $10.830 $10.854 -0.22%
Economic Opportunity* $1.145 $1.097 4.38%
Total $11.975 $11.951 0.20%
 Dollar figures above rounded to nearest million. Percentages reflect non-rounded figures.
* The Department of Economic Opportunity is included with Transportation in this section, but in the General Government section in the Appropriations by Program Area in the rest of this guide.


Transportation – The $9.839 billion DOT Work Program includes:

  • Highway and Bridge Construction - $3.9 billion
  • Resurfacing - $1.3 billion
  • Seaports - $228.3 million
  • Aviation Development - $351.4 million
  • Rail Development - $303.8 million
  • Public Transit Development - $567.8 million
  • Right of Way Acquisition - $577.3 million

Local Member Projects - 58 projects worth $119.7 million bypassed the work program development process. These projects were identified in Florida TaxWatch’s Budget Turkey Watch Report and 24 projects (worth $33.4 million) were vetoed.

Economic Development saw VISIT FLORIDA funded at $76 million, the Florida Job Growth Grant Fund at $85 million, and the Economic Development Toolkit Payments at $29.1 million (no new contracts).

Affordable Housing receives $123.6 million but, once again, more money was swept from housing trust funds ($182.0 million) than was appropriated from them.

General Government Budget Highlights

   in $ billion  
Agency 2018-19 2017-18 Change
Administered Funds $0.299 $0.096 211.88%
Business & Prof. Reg. $0.155 $0.154 0.65%
Citrus $0.031 $0.033 -5.15%
Financial Services $0.394 $0.373 5.68%
Governor’s Office $1.891 $0.420 350.12%
Hwy Safety & Motor Veh. $0.480 $0.483 -0.65%
Legislature $0.209 $0.208 0.58%
Lottery $0.182 $0.168 8.39%
Management Services $0.715 $0.684 4.52%
Military Affairs $0.063 $0.073 -13.15%
Public Service Comm. $0.025 $0.025 0.00%
Revenue $0.586 $0.580 1.11%
State $0.097 $0.118 -17.52%
Total $5.129 $3.415 50.18%
 Dollar figures above rounded to nearest million. Percentages reflect non-rounded figures.

FLAIR Replacement receives $32.5 million and 26 new positions to continue the replacement of the Florida Accounting Information Resource System with the Planning, Accounting and Ledger Management (PALM) system.

State Facilities receive $56.3 million to address the $489.4 million backlog of repairs and other needed improvements to state facilities.

Fiscally Constrained Counties receive $28.6 million to offset property taxes lost due to constitutional amendments approved in 2008.

Emergency Management funding includes $1.8 billion in federal disaster aid. This is the reason for the large increase in funding for the Governor’s Office.

Trust Fund Sweeps

Agency for Health Care Administration
Health Care Trust Fund $8,000,000
Department of Business and Professional Regulation
Condominiums, Timeshares and Mobile Homes Trust Fund $5,000,000
Professional Regulation Trust Fund $8,750,000
Hotel and Restaurant Trust Fund $5,750,000
Department of Economic Opportunity
Local Government Housing Trust Fund $127,400,000
State Housing Trust Fund $54,600,000
Department of Environmental Protection
Inland Protection Trust Fund $58,000,000
Air Pollution Control Trust Fund $3,000,000
Department of Financial Services
Anti-Fraud Trust Fund $1,000,000
Fiancial Institutions Regulatory Trust Fund $1,000,000
Regulatory Trust Fund/Office of Financial Regulation $19,800,000
Insurance Regulatory Trust Fund $45,000,000
Department of Health
Medical Quality Assurance Trust Fund $11,040,779
Planning and evaluation Trust Fund $11,000,000
Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles
Highway Safety Operating Trust Fund $2,800,000
Department of Juvenile Justice
Grants & Donations Trust Fund $8,000,000
Juvenile Crime Prevention and Early Intervention Trust Fund* $1,000,000
Department of Management Services
Operating Trust Fund $3,000,000
Department of Law Enforcement
Operating Trust Fund $10,000,000
Department of Legal Affairs
Legal Affairs Revolving Trust Fund* $10,000,000
Elections Commission Trust Fund* $1,500,000
Motor Vehicle Warranty Trust Fund $3,000,000
Justice Administration Commission
State Attorney Revenue Trust Fund $4,206,028
Indigent Criminal Defense Trust Fund $1,467,028

 

 

Total (pre-veto) $404,313,835
Total (post-veto) $391,813,835
 *Vetoed by the Governor

Growth in Florida's State Budget

FY Appropriations
($ billion)
Annual Growth Cumulative Growth
08-09 $66.251 -6.47% -10.17%
09-10 $66.506 0.38% -9.82%
10-11 $70.259 5.64% -4.73%
11-12 $69.156 -1.57% -6.23%
12-13 $69.963 1.17% -5.14%
13-14 $74.240 6.11% 0.66%
14-15 $77.072 3.81% 4.50%
15-16 $78.396 1.72% 6.30%
16-17 $82.285 4.96% 11.57%
17-18 $84.953 3.24% 15.19%
18-19 $89.313 5.13% 21.10%
 
FY Per Capita Appropriations CPI/Pop Adjusted
($ billion)*
Approps. as % of Individual Income
08-09 $3,548 $61.245 9.3%
09-10 $3,543 $60.326 9.4%
10-11 $3,721 $62.725 9.4%
11-12 $3,634 $60.073 8.9%
12-13 $3,641 $58.465 8.7%
13-14 $3,818 $60.296 9.0%
14-15 $3,905 $61.243 8.8%
15-16 $3,907 $60.870 8.5%
16-17 $4,034 $61.701 8.5%
17-18 $4,092 $61.425 8.4%
18-19 $4,229 $62.478 8.4%
 * CPI/Pop Adjusted: Total amount of appropriations adjusted for inflation and population growth (base year FY2006-07).

Educational Enhancement Trust Fund

FY Lottery
Revenues
Slot Machines
Revenues
Total EETF
Revenues
EETF
Approps.
in $ billion
08-09 $1.280 $0.104 $1.384 $1.432
09-10 $1.238 $0.136 $1.374 $1.415
10-11 $1.184 $0.125 $1.309 $1.292
11-12 $1.317 $0.143 $1.460 $1.484
12-13 $1.345 $0.142 $1.488 $1.496
13-14 $1.475 $0.182 $1.657 $1.602
14-15 $1.479 $0.182 $1.661 $1.879
15-16 $1.582 $0.183 $1.765 $1.646
16-17 $1.634 $0.192 $1.825 $1.763
17-18 $1.704 $0.192 $1.896 $1.985
18-19 $1.794 $0.196 $1.990 $2.251

State Employee Positions

FY State Employee FTEs FTEs per 1,000 pop.
2008-09 112,867 6.04
2009-10* 128,131 6.83
2010-11 126,729 6.71
2011-12 122,237 6.42
2012-13 117,930 6.14
2013-14 114,486 5.89
2014-15 114,503 5.80
2015-16 113,687 5.67
2016-17 113,431 5.56
2017-18 112,827 5.43
2018-19 112,874 5.34
FTEs are state employee positions authorized/funded in the budget. Some are vacant. Employees of State Universities and Colleges are not included as state employee positions. * In 2009-10, more than 12,000 County Health Department positions began being counted in the budget.

Historical Appropriations by Area

  FY2018-19 FY2017-18
Program Area $ billion % of budget $ billion % of budget
Education $25.796 28.9% $24.925 29.3%
Health & Human Services $37.215 41.7% $35.956 42.3%
Criminal Justice $4.675 5.2% $4.565 5.4%
Environment $3.978 4.5% $3.604 4.2%
Transportation $10.830 12.1% $10.854 12.8%
Gen. Gov’t $6.274 7.0% $4.513 5.3%
Judicial Branch $0.545 0.6% $0.536 0.6%
Total $89.313 100.0% $84.953 100.0%


  FY2012-13 FY2007-08
Program Area $ billion % of budget $ billion % of budget
Education $20.278 29.0% $23.719 33.5%
Health & Human Services $29.878 42.7% $23.860 33.7%
Criminal Justice $4.186 6.0% $4.404 6.2%
Environment $3.425 4.9% $4.724 6.7%
Transportation $7.866 11.2% $8.452 11.9%
Gen. Gov’t $3.886 5.6% $5.188 7.3%
Judicial Branch $0.444 0.6% $0.484 0.7%
Total $69.963 100.0% $70.831 100.0%

Historical Appropriations by Funding Source

  FY2018-19 FY2017-18
Funding Source $ billion % of budget $ billion % of budget
General Revenue $32.849 36.8% $31.508 37.1%
State Trust Funds $24.930 27.9% $23.777 28.0%
Federal Funds $31.534 35.3% $29.668 34.9%
Total $89.313 100.0% $84.953 100.0%


  FY2012-13 FY2007-08
Funding Source $ billion % of budget $ billion % of budget
General Revenue $24.717 33.9% $28.475 40.5%
State Trust Funds $20.398 27.6% $22.888 30.5%
Federal Funds $24.847 38.5% $19.468 29.0%
Total $69.963 100.0% $70.831 100.0%

Historical Appropriations by Type

FY Medicaid/TANF General
Operations
Aid to Local
Governments
in $ billion
08-09 $15.592 $19.823 $18.382
09-10 $17.956 $20.663 $18.919
10-11 $20.566 $20.473 $19.464
11-12 $21.812 $18.752 $18.343
12-13 $21.790 $19.021 $18.692
13-14 $23.307 $19.474 $19.778
14-15 $22.588 $21.011 $20.739
15-16 $25.775 $19.235 $20.912
16-17 $27.072 $19.994 $21.773
17-18 $28.549 $20.218 $22.687
18-19 $29.625 $22.422 $23.564


FY DOT Work
Program
Debt
Service
Pension/
Claims
Fixed Cap.
Outlay
in $ billion
08-09 $7.127 $1.962 $0.771 $2.593
09-10 $5.450 $2.001 $0.739 $0.778
10-11 $5.837 $2.041 $0.743 $1.134
11-12 $6.881 $2.040 $0.673 $0.656
12-13 $7.230 $2.167 $0.649 $0.414
13-14 $8.471 $1.825 $0.650 $0.735
14-15 $9.195 $1.834 $0.651 $1.054
15-16 $9.119 $1.811 $0.627 $0.918
16-17 $9.815 $1.790 $0.609 $1.232
17-18 $9.881 $1.758 $0.933 $0.928
18-19 $9.839 $1.703 $1.130 $1.030

Note: Aid to Local Governments includes the Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP) and both local operations and local fixed capital outlay.

History of State Reserves

FY General
Revenue
Budget
Stabilization
Fund
Chiles
Endowment
Total
Reserves
in $ billion
08-09 $0.631 $0.274 $0.564 $1.469
09-10 $1.573 $0.275 $0.627 $2.475
10-11 $0.746 $0.279 $0.768 $1.793
11-12 $1.509 $0.494 $0.776 $2.779
12-13 $2.892 $0.708 $0.479 $4.079
13-14 $2.206 $0.924 $0.499 $3.629
14-15 $1.350 $1.138 $0.607 $3.095
15-16 $1.227 $1.354 $0.642 $3.223
16-17 $1.117 $1.384 $0.568 $3.069
17-18 $1.200 $1.417 $0.677 $3.294
18-19 $1.026 $1.483 $0.763 $3.272




FY Total Funds
(in $ billion)
% State % Local
08-09 $17.919 47.7% 52.3%
09-10 $17.083 47.3% 52.7%
10-11 $17.120 52.0% 48.0%
11-12 $16.581 52.5% 47.5%
12-13 $17.223 55.4% 44.6%
13-14 $18.309 57.2% 42.8%
14-15 $18.905 56.3% 43.7%
15-16 $19.699 55.5% 44.5%
16-17 $20.187 56.0% 44.0%
17-18 $20.612 56.5% 43.5%
18-19 $21.097 56.5% 43.5%


FEFP Funding Per Student

FY Funding   FY Funding
07-08 $7,128   13-14 $6,761
08-09 $6,845   14-15 $6,890
09-10 $6,842   15-16 $7,107
10-11 $6,842   16-17 $7,196
11-12 $6,225   17-18 $7,307
12-13 $6,385   18-19 $7,408

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The Author

Kurt Wenner, Vice President of Research. Kurt has authored all of the major tax publications produced by Florida TaxWatch, including pieces on Florida’s Intangibles Tax, and general sales, property, and business tax issues.

See Kurt's full bio

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